They notice that Brain Storming is a good method to quickly and intuitively start a project. Their Mind Map plug-in is a support for discussion about ontology structure. Mind Map descriptions will be followed by three examples of information ontologies: one example will be taken from urban planning project, another one come from archi- tectural design and the latter is used in a construction project.
Mind Map provides information about a topic that is structured in a tree see Fig. Mind maps are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing. Their information ontology is composed of actors, objects, activities and documents. All these components are in relation during the cooperative process of design building. Thus it is preferable to follow the decisions taken by each actor to understand the project development, to save time and to avoid errors.
Their information ontology presents the state of architectural design components by following the decision process of each actor about this component. These ontologies are implemented in information system in order to compute some 3D representations of the building called mock up. These mock-ups synthesize the evolution of the project. This work is still in development, Bouattour et al. Example: Information Ontology of Urban Planning Kaza and Hopkins presents a set of concepts to formalize information ontologies used during urban planning process.
Their information ontologies show the different alternatives of a decision in a plan. Plans could present effective decisions, alterna- tive decisions and realizations in order to facilitate the communication between several actors. Moreover this type of plans can help stakeholders during their deci- sion process in order to have a general overview of the city evolution. All these concepts decisions, alternative, actors, etc.
In this example the information ontology does not look like a Mind Map but it still uses a visual language similar to that used in a plan.
Use of prepositions —Scope in the initial version of NegEx extended for only five terms, whereas scope in the current version is extended to the end of the sentence unless encountering a termination term. New tools for precision livestock management. These terms enable to start the development of the concept hierar- chy using four taxonomic relations: subclass of, disjoint-decomposition, exhaustive decomposition and partition. Black — most frequent triggers; Dark grey — less frequent triggers; Light grey — triggers that did not occur. Many negation algorithms have shown high performance at identifying negation of clinical conditions in English text [ 2 — 5 ]. In: Agouris, P. Contrary to traditional methods of calculation, soft computing techniques allow the inclusion of values which are described in natural language.
This type of information ontology focuses on the location of the concept instance not on their internal structure description. These information ontologies represent some general patterns that have to be modified in order to resolve the specific problem of the construction project. The first stage of problem solving is to understand the language convention of each actor group based on the ontology element.
Then negotiation and collaborative works can begin to find the appropriate solution of the construction problem. This type of ontology has to be heavy adaptable and modifiable. Unfortunately, terms are ambiguous.
The roles of linguistic ontologies are twofold: The first one is to present and define the vocabulary used. This is achieved by a dictionary for example which list all the terms actually used in language. This agreement defines which term is used to represent a concept in order to avoid ambiguity.
This process is called vocabulary normaliza- tion. When a concept could be described by two synonym terms, the normalization process selects one of those to be the preferred label of the concept. It means that in Fig.
Taxonomy and thesaurus organized their normalized vocabulary so that the a priori relationships between concepts are made explicit. That is the reasons why in Fig. Unfortunately the distinction between concepts and their instances are not taken in account: Instances are considered like concepts. A thesaurus has three basic relationships among terms: equivalence, hierarchical and associative. Let us point out that the last two relations hide several semantic relations.
Associative relation between two terms means that there exists a semantic link between concepts labeled by these terms but no information is given on this semantic link.
Now we describe two languages that can be used to describe this type of ontolo- gies: SKOS is used to define thesaurii and RDF is used the defined web metadata. Next we present four different thesaurii belonging to different domains: urban plan- ning, environmental domain and cultural heritage; followed by a taxonomy used in architectural design. RDF is composed of Triples: 1 the subject the web page , 2 a property or predicate an attribute name and 3 an object the actual value of the attribute for the web page.
The subject is a resource. The property is a resource that has a name.
The object can be a URI, a literal a string of character representing a number, a date, a noun etc. Since the creation of the data bank in , the hierarchical organization of all these topics gave place to the construction of thesaurus URBAMET. The thesau- rus is accessible in French, Spanish and English.
A study of this thesaurus is pre- sented in Chap. It has been developed as an indexing, retrieval and control tool for the EEA. AGROVOC is a multilingual thesaurus designed to cover the terminology of all subject fields in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and several other environmental domains environmental quality, pollution, etc.
It is an excellent example of linguistic ontology resulting of a terminology agreement between a community.
This thesaurus is described in Chap. Example: DesignScape Project The research developed in the project DesignScape focuses on the modeling of the different steps of the architectural design Kim and Kim The works formal- ize the typical building design process by a linguistic ontology.
More precisely, the ontology is a taxonomy describing the relationships between different activities related to architectural design. The main basis activities modeled are: pre-design, site analysis, schematic design, space zoning, site zoning, objectives definition, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Numerous concepts around the architectural design activity are represented in the considered ontology. These relations are also associated to constraints. At execution time, data are stored in the properties of object, that is to say an instance of a concept.
Thus, data could be processed in various treatments called methods. Software ontologies are normally defined with conceptual modeling languages used in software and database engineering. These languages are used during soft- ware design procedure: for example Entity-Relationship Model language or Object Model Language.
Ontologies in Urban Development Projects (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing) [Gilles Falquet, Claudine Métral, Jacques Teller, Christopher. Editorial Reviews. Review. From the reviews: “This book, a collection of papers by different blinvepemounlict.cf: Ontologies in Urban Development Projects ( Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing) eBook: Gilles Falquet, Claudine Métral.
The next section presents the most well known one called UML. UML presentation will be followed by one example of software ontology1 used in building construction. UML is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying and constructing any parts of software components. Thus, UML is not sufficient to represent all the details required by complex reasoning processes Cranefield like: deducing new knowledge, compute the logical correctness of a formal ontology, etc.
Figures 2. There have been several releases of the model that have been implemented. The IFC is a response to interop- erability requirements within building construction by a significantly large group of industry practitioners including government and other statutory bodies, clients, con- sultants and contractors together with a substantial number of software vendors. The primary target of the IFC Model is the interoperability among software applica- tions within the building and construction market sector Ferreira da Silva and Cutting-Decelle IFC classes are therefore defined according to the scope and the abstraction level of software systems dealing with building and construction specific content.
Such a model has been primarily developed to enable the exchange and sharing of Building Information Models BIM to increase the productiveness of design, construction, and maintenance operations within the life cycle of buildings. The IFC model therefore describes an object model with concepts classes , relations as direct associations or objectified relationships , and properties or attributes. They are now widely accepted by industry and major Computer Aided Design software systems support IFC classes for file based exchanges with plan- ning tools and cost evaluation applications.
The IFC standard is studied in several chapters of this book, especially in Chap. This is obtained by using formal logic usually first order logic or Description Logic where the meaning of the concept is guaranteed by formal semantics Borgo As you can see in Fig.