Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow: 101 (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)

Ultrasonic Doppler Method for Velocity Profile Measurement in Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Engineering
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The range-gated cross-correlator enables energies reflected from different depth levels to be selected, and by cross-correlating between the energies received by the two transducers, a velocity profile of the liquid phase can be produced in this embodiment. The angled high-frequency pulsed Doppler transducer operates in a manner similar to the aforementioned angled Doppler transducer The contact-transducer flowmeter is similar to the triple-transducer platewave flowmeter in FIG. In one embodiment, the contact-transducer flowmeter may enable the fluid type behind the pipe wall to be detected with acoustic impedance measurements.

In another embodiment, the contact-transducer flowmeter may provide velocity measurements along multiple paths in the pipe for a more accurate average velocity measurement.

Applied Rheology

The contact transducers are in direct contact with the pipe. The contact surface may be flat or curved in order to match the exterior of the pipe. At the contact surface, contact materials may be used to remove any air gap between the transducer and the pipe. Techniques used for the contact transducers may include delay line, dual-element, etc.

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The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow, Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications. April 10, |In Publications , ISBN

A delay line transducer allows sending of an ultrasonic signal to be completed before receiving an ultrasonic signal. A dual-element transducer generally has one independent element that sends an ultrasonic signal and the other independent element that receives an ultrasonic signal.

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The contact transducers may be arranged at different angles around the circumference of the pipe. Some of the contact transducers may detect the fluid type behind the pipe wall by using acoustic impedance measurements. Other contact transducers may provide velocity measurements along multiple paths in the pipe for a more accurate average velocity measurement. The multi-spacing platewave flowmeter is similar to the triple-transducer platewave flowmeter in FIG.

The third angled platewave transducer - 3 provides an additional measurement with a longer spacing between the third angled platewave transducer - 3 and the second angled platewave transducer - 2. While a shorter spacing provides better signal to noise ratio for detecting the primary echoes, the longer spacing enables more multiples of fluid interface echoes to be detected.

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The top-bottom platewave flowmeter is similar to the triple-transducer platewave flowmeter in FIG. The additional angled platewave transducers may form transmitter and receiver pairs among them for additional measurements. The wideband flowmeter is similar to the dual-transducer flowmeter in FIG.

1. Introduction

This embodiment may enable an alternative method of measurement or provide a redundancy of measurements. The wideband transducer generates useful pulses having a typical frequency range from 1 MHz to 20 MHz. As will be described in greater detail, the wideband transducer can be used to determine the acoustic impedance of the liquid phase and the fraction of water in the liquid phase. In another embodiment, the speed of sound and thickness of an annular liquid phase can also be determined.

The multi-angled flowmeter is similar to the dual-transducer flowmeter in FIG.

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Wan, C. It is known that the The positions of both ends of the profiles coincide. The appara- profile on the monitor display of the apparatus and switch- tus used for our measurement has a pipe of 1-m length ing the rotation direction of the propeller, phase flipping and mm diameter immersed in a water tank while a of the profile could be clearly seen following a change in piston located at one end moves back and forth horizon- flow direction. Residual artificial perturbations introduced from the inlet conditions may also have contributed to their loosely structured appearance. Nayak Authors Search for Vinicius C.

The coupling may be of a removable type such as a clamp-on. As will be appreciated by those of skill in the art, the coupling may also be of a permanent type such as by building a transducer housing directly into a section of a pipe. Additional ways to affix the dual-transducer flowmeter to the pipe may include using epoxy, tie-wrapping around the pipe, etc.

The multiphase flow in the pipe comprises of at least a liquid layer and gas One can define the incident angle as positive if the axial propagation direction of the pulse is against the direction of the flow, and negative if it is with the direction of the flow. The absolute value of the incident angle in the liquid layer is generally at least 10 degrees and at most 80 degrees. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other absolute values for the incident angle in the liquid layer may be used in various embodiments, such as at least 45 degrees and at most 70 degrees, at least 37 degrees and at most 58 degrees, and at least 18 degrees and at most 80 degrees.

As will be appreciated by those of skill in the art, the emission of the pulse signal travels against the flow of the liquid layer and the return echo travels with the flow. Additionally, a round trip time-of-flight of the pulse signal in the pipe wall can be determined such as with a calibration measurement.

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The absolute value of the incident angle in the liquid layer is generally less than 10 degrees deviated from 0 degrees. Similar to the angled Doppler transducer , the perpendicular narrowband transducer can be used to determine at least a second time-of-flight determination. The effect of flow velocity on the second time-of-flight determination is absent or is different from the first determination determined with the angled Doppler transducer It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the two time-of-flight determinations, with the corresponding time-of-flight in the pipe wall removed, can form the following two equations, where c is the speed of sound in the liquid layer , h is the thickness of the liquid layer , and k is a known constant based on the speed of sound and the refraction angle in the pipe wall :.

By combining the time-of-flight determinations from both the angled Doppler transducer and the perpendicular narrowband transducer , the speed of sound in the liquid layer can be determined in this embodiment. From the speed of sound determination, the thickness of the liquid layer can also be determined.

Additionally, the speed of sound in the liquid layer can be used to determine the fraction of water in the liquid layer Moreover, the flow rate of the liquid layer can be determined based on a mean flow velocity and the thickness of the liquid layer In some embodiments, the mean flow velocity may be determined based on a determination of a velocity profile of the liquid layer In some aspects of the present invention, the velocity profile may be measured by the angled pulsed Doppler transducer This embodiment is similar to the embodiment depicted in FIG. Two angled platewave transducers can be used to produce and detect a shorter-range platewave A second angled platewave transducer - 2 produces the shorter-range platewave that travels in the same direction as the flow of the liquid layer , with a first angled platewave transducer - 1 operating as a receiver.

Subsequently, the first angled platewave transducer - 1 produces a platewave that travels in the opposite direction as the flow of the liquid layer , with the second angled platewave transducer - 2 operating as a receiver. A perpendicular high-frequency wideband transducer performs a time-domain pulse-echo-measurement to determine a time-of-flight determination of the gas-liquid interface as well as a time-of-flight determination in the pipe wall The angled platewave transducers can be used to determine a first time-of-flight determination and a third time-of-flight determination, one with the flow and one against the flow.

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It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the three in-liquid time-of-flight determinations can be used in the following three equations:. From the three time-of-flight determinations, the speed of sound, thickness, and mean flow velocity of the liquid layer can be determined in this embodiment.

This embodiment demonstrates one way to produce a velocity profile of the liquid layer This embodiment demonstrates another way to produce a velocity profile of the liquid layer with fewer transducers. It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that other absolute values for the incident angle in the liquid layer may be used in various embodiments, such as at least 45 degrees and at most 70 degrees, at least 27 degrees and at most 58 degrees, and at least 58 degrees and at most 80 degrees. In one embodiment, the fluid type behind the pipe wall may be detected with acoustic impedance measurements.

In another embodiment, a more accurate average velocity measurement may be provided with velocity measurements along multiple paths in the pipe. A contact transducer - 4 on the top of the pipe may form a transmitter and receiver pair with a contact transducer - 1 on the bottom of the pipe. Likewise, a contact transducer - 2 on one side of the pipe may form an additional transmitter and receiver pair with a contact transducer - 5 on the opposite side of the pipe.

Introductory Fluid Mechanics L2 p5: Example Problem - Wall Shear Stress

Similarly, contact transducers - 10 , - 4 on the top of the pipe may also form transmitter and receiver pairs with contact transducers - 7 , - 1 on the bottom of the pipe. There may be intervals when the liquid layer fills up the pipe, enabling direct transmission between the transmitter and receiver pairs. The third angled platewave transducer - 3 enables a longer-range platewave to be produced and received. The longer-range platewave may allow more information about the flow to be determined in this embodiment. Angled platewave transducers - 3 , - 4 on the top of the pipe may form additional transmitter and receiver pairs with angled platewave transducers - 2 , - 1 on the bottom of the pipe.

This embodiment may enable more robust velocity profile determinations. A recording time axis represents the delay time between the emission of a pulse signal and the arrival of a return echo. The lower section of the flow velocity profile with zero velocity corresponds to the regions inside the transducer and pipe wall because there are no moving echo-producing reflectors in these regions.

If there are detectable moving echo-producing reflectors such as solid particles, small gas bubbles, or liquid droplets in the liquid layer , energies are reflected and a velocity profile across the liquid layer can be produced. Similar to the flow velocity profile in FIG.

Likewise, the lower section of the Doppler echo energy profile with zero energy corresponds to the regions inside the transducer and inside the pipe wall Echo-producing reflectors that flow in the liquid layer cause certain levels of energy to be reflected. The energy levels depend on factors such as impedance mismatch between the echo-producing reflectors and the liquid layer , or the concentration and size distribution of the echo-producing reflectors in the corresponding sample volume in the liquid layer If flow velocity is relatively slow, the horizontal pipe can act as a natural gravity separator that produces a stratified distribution where the liquid layer occupies the lower part of the pipe and gas the upper part.

Transducers are configured to be coupled to an underside of the pipe if the pipe is horizontal. For a stratified distribution , the liquid cross-section is divided into sub-areas by parallel horizontal lines. For an annular distribution , the liquid cross-section is divided into as many concentric annular-shaped regions as the number of non-zero velocity points on the velocity profile.

Accordingly, the time-of-flight in the liquid layer , which is designated as the liquid time-of-flight , can be determined in this embodiment. The flow rate of the liquid layer can also be determined based on determinations of the area and flow velocity of each section.

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In certain aspects, the stratified flow may occur in a generally horizontal pipe or the like. In general, in order to effectively characterize a multiphase flow, it is helpful if the multiphase fluid mixture exhibits a predetermined type of flow. For example, if it is known that the mixture is e. As such, in embodiments of the present invention, the mixture may be conditioned to exhibit swirling flow, which separates the liquid from the gas.

For example, the conduit may have a swirl element, such as a helical insert or vane assembly, for inducing the mixture to exhibit swirling flow. The swirl element may include one or more spiral-shaped members extending along the conduit in the direction of fluid flow. Preferably, the spiral shaped members are positioned at the wall of the conduit and, when viewed along the axis the conduit, leave a central core of the conduit unimpeded i. Alternatively, the swirl element may be formed by a tangential flow inlet to the conduit.

An advantage of swirling flow is that it is relatively easy to induce and sustain unlike stratified or homogenized flow which may be unstable over typical measurement distances. Further, modeling the characteristics of swirling flow through a Venturi is relatively straightforward, compared to modeling stratified or churning flow, for example. Also, swirling flow is generally symmetrical about the flow axis, resulting in certain measurements of the flow being independent of angular orientation.

Inducing the mixture to exhibit swirling flow separates the liquid and gas phases of the mixture. The swirling flow causes the liquid of the mixture to be displaced to the wall of the conduit, e. With reference to FIGS. The diagram in FIG. The response is shown on a voltage versus time graph in FIG.

This time-of-flight determination is absent from the effect of flow velocity. The absolute value of the incident angle in the liquid layer is generally at least 3 degrees and at most 80 degrees. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other incident angles may be used in various embodiments, such as at least 45 degrees and at most 70 degrees, at least 7 degrees and at most 58 degrees, and at least 58 degrees and at most 80 degrees.